Tuesday, November 08, 2005

Do You Want To Be A Pilot In The United States?

This article brought to you courtesy of http://www.flightschoolworld.com

I receive many emails requesting information about becoming an airline pilot in the United States. This article addresses many of the general questions I receive about the types of pilot careers, salaries, FAA requirements, training, advancement opportunities and the employment outlook for pilots.

(Please note that the commercial pilot industry is very competitive, particularly since 9/11. The information gathered for this article was sourced mainly from government labour research organizations, noted at the end of the article).


There are four general types of pilot careers: 1. Commercial Airline Pilots 2. Agricultural Pilots 3. Helicopter Pilots 4. Photogrammetry Pilots


4 out of 5 pilots Commercial Airline Pilots in the US are responsible for transporting cargo and/or passengers. The other 20% of commercial pilots have positions involved in search and rescue, testing aircraft, flight instruction or examination, monitoring car traffic or tracking criminals. Some commercial pilots also fly agricultural planes, described below in more detail.

There are generally three categories of careers for commercial airline pilots: the Pilot, or the Captain is the most senior officer and supervises the flight crew; the Co-Pilot, called the First Officer, who assists the captain; and the Flight Engineer, or Second Officer, who assists the other pilots and performs such tasks as monitoring and operating instruments. Most aircraft fly with only two pilots as computerized equipment is replacing the need for flight engineers in modern, more sophisticated planes.

About 75% of pilots fly 75 hours a month, and spend about 75 hours completing non-flying work responsibilities. About 25% of pilots work more than 40 hours per week.


Agricultural Pilots fly helicopters or airplanes and are typically responsible for dusting crops, distributing seeds for reforestation, fighting forest fires, inspecting pipelines, or distributing fish into lakes.


Helicopter pilots provide a variety of services working for businesses and government. Areas of specialty include traffic monitoring, oil and gas exploration, pipeline monitoring, logging, construction, agriculture, search and rescue, emergency medical transport, law enforcement, and newsgathering. Other helicopter pilot positions are available for corporate or travel charter.


Photogrammetry Pilots specialize at flying at specific altitudes and speeds suitable for aerial photography. Aerial photography is used for mapping the earth�s surface, real estate purposes, and business or government research requirements.


The median annual income of all commercial pilots in the US is $43,300. The highest 10% of earners earned more than $92,000 and the lowest 10% of earners made less than $24,000.

Pilots� salaries vary widely depending on the aircraft used, the number of hours and miles flown, and whether or not the pilot works for an airline. Earnings for airline pilots are among the highest in the country.

The median annual income of commercial airline pilots is $110,940, and over 25% earned more than $145,000. The lowest 10% of commercial airline pilots earned less than $36,110. Senior pilots are among the highest paid earners in the US.

In addition to traditional income, pilots earn a "per diem" or expense allowance for every hour that they are away from their base city. This per diem can be up to $500 per month. Further, pilots and their immediate families also enjoy the benefits of significantly reduced air travel and hotel accommodation rates.


Greater than 50% of all aircraft pilots in the US are union members. The majority of pilots that are employed by major airlines belong to the Airline Pilots Association, International, or the ALPA. However, those employed by one national airline are members of the Allied Pilots Association. Additionally, some flight engineers belong to the Flight Engineers' International Association.

Flight route assignments are based on seniority of union membership.


To be employed as a commercial pilot in the United States requires a Federal Air Transport rating and certification for the specific type of aircraft being flown. Helicopter pilots must also be rated and have a commercial pilot�s certificate. Applicants for these licenses must have a minimum of 250 flight hours of experience and be at least 18 years of age. In addition, candidates must pass a physical examination that ensures that they are in good health and that they have good hearing and 20/20 vision either with or without glasses.

The written test for a pilot�s rating includes questions on FAA regulations, the principles of safe flight, and navigation techniques. The certification also requires pilots to demonstrate their flying ability to FAA or FAA approved examiners.

To fly during times of low visibility, pilots must be rated to fly by instruments alone. To qualify for this rating, pilots must pass a written test and are required to have 105 hours of flight experience that includes 40 hours of experience flying exclusively by instruments. This certification requires pilots to demonstrate their ability to fly by instruments alone to FAA or FAA approved examiners.

Commercial Airline pilots have additional licensing requirements. First, airline pilots must have a transport license, which requires applicants to be at least 23 years old and have a minimum of 1,500 flying hours of experience. This experience must include instrument and night flying. Additionally, airline pilots must pass written and flight examinations. Second, airline pilots are usually required to have one or more advanced ratings, such as an aircraft type rating or a multi-engine aircraft rating. This second qualification criteria is dependent upon the types of aircraft the pilot is flying and/or the type of pilot job.

Pilots� licenses or ratings are valid as long as the pilot passes the period physical exams and flying tests that are required by the Federal Government and the airline company regulations. Medical certificates are issued in 3 classes. A class l certificate is the most rigorous, and requires the highest levels of vision, hearing, equilibrium and health. The Class ll Medical Certificate has less stringent requirements, but still demands a high standard of general health and an excellent medical history. The least rigid classification is the class lll Medical Certificate.


Legally, pilots are not allowed to fly more than 100 hours in any given month, and no more than 1000 hours in any given year. In addition, pilots must be allowed at least 8 hours of uninterrupted rest in the 24 hours before finishing their flight duty. The FAA requires airlines to provide pilots with this rest period to guard against excessive fatigue that could result in an unsafe flight.


There are approximately 600 civilian flying schools in the US that are certified by the FAA. Some colleges and universities also offer FAA certified pilot courses that offer degree credits. In addition, the Armed Forces is a large source of trained pilots for civilian pilot careers.


Many new airline pilots start out as flight engineers or first officers with smaller or regional airlines. Advancement for many pilots may involve transferring from a small airline to a major carrier. However, advancement is typically dependent upon seniority. Flight Engineers can advance according their seniority to First Officer positions after 1 to 5 years of experience. After to 5 to 15 years experiencing, they can advance to Captain positions depending on their seniority.

Some pilots advance to managerial positions, while others advance based on seniority to larger aircraft or better routes or a preferred home base location. Agricultural Pilots can advance into management jobs or become self-employed as independent contractors.


The number of job opportunities for pilots in the US is expected to grow about as fast as the average of overall employment growth from 2003 to 2010. However competition for jobs will continue to be high. Causes that slow growth are a function of mergers and challenges in the airline industry. In addition, advancements in technology reduce the need for Flight Engineers, and video conferencing and teleconferencing reduce the need for business travel.

Some industry analysts predict the need for 27,000 new pilots between 2003 and 2010 as a result of retirement. Many of the pilots who were hired in the 1960�s are now reaching mandatory retirement age, and thus a few thousand job vacancies are expected to arise each year for the next several years. Note that not many pilots retire early because of the high earnings and benefits, and the fact their unique skills are not generally transferable to other careers.

The employment of pilots is sensitive to changes in the economy. Airlines are forced to furlough or temporarily lay-off pilots during periods when the demand for air travel declines. At times of recession, pilots employed in commercial or corporate flying and flight instruction are adversely affected by the downturn in the economy.


Pilots that have the most FAA licenses and that have logged the most number of flying hours on sophisticated aircraft will generally have the best job prospects. Military pilots typically have more experience and licenses than other pilots, and thus have more job opportunities.

It is forecasted that the greatest number of new job openings will come from the regional passenger and cargo airlines, and international carriers. The industry will likely experience a need for more airlines, pilots and flight instructors.

It is also expected that there will be an increasing need for pilots that operate single engine airplanes because more businesses are chartering private aircraft.

Note that women make up approximately 25% of the total number of people employed as pilots in the US and this figure is expected to increase.


The majority of pilot jobs in the US are located in cities with major airline hubs. Most positions are concentrated in Texas, Georgia, New Jersey, New York, California, the District of Columbia, Michigan, Illinois, Washington and Florida. These regions generate the most flights relative to their population size.

By Julia Dean, MBA
President, www.AirlineJOB.net - helping people get airline jobs faster

Copyright www.AirlineJOB.net. All rights reserved.


Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos107.htm

CPTC http://www.cptc.ctc.edu/cptc/pages/pilot/html/trend.htm

ICPAC http://icpac.indiana.edu/careers/career_profiles/100234.xml/empout

California Employment Development Department


Research & Analysis Bureau Providing Labor Market Information for the State of Montana


About The Author

Julia Dean is the President of www.AirlineJOB.net and a professional researcher and copywriter. Julia holds a Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) from Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada.

This article was posted on September 22, 2003

Monday, November 07, 2005

Finding The Best Airline Tickets

This article brought to you courtesy of http://www.flightschoolworld.com

General advice when you�re shopping for the best deals on the Internet: Plan to spend some time. You may have to visit several sites.

Before you book, investigate refund and cancellation policies, �service fees� per ticket, and whether frequent-flier miles are granted or not.

Check out the Message Boards on www.frommers.com and similar sites for information and tips from individuals which can be helpful.

Go to various individual carrier sites and sign up to be notified about special deals.

Subscribe to Frommers newsletter. It�s well worth it - http://www.frommers.com/subscribe .

To maximize your chance for getting the cheapest ticket, try these things:

1.Plan to stay over a Saturday, to fly on Tuesdays, Wednesdays or Thursdays after 7 pm, and to avoid returning on a Sunday.

2.Begin with the Big Ones: www.expedia.com, www.orbitz.com, and www.travelocity.com, and the Obvious Ones: www.cheapseats.com, www.cheapair.com, www.cheapflights.com, and www.hotwire.com .

3.Check out this site to find the budget airlines and go to their sites for prices: http://www.flybudget.com . It lists some airlines I promise you you've never heard of, and comments from people who've flown them.

On a recent trip I took, Southwest beat out everyone except hotwire.com.

4.Try a consolidator. Frommers recommends the following: http://www.frommers.com/activities/article.cfm?destid=AIRFARE&articleid=453 .

5.Visit the sites of the individual carriers. Sometimes you can get a better deal there.

7.Bid or name your price: http://www.skyauction.com/, www.priceline.com .

About the Author

Susan Dunn, MA, Personal Life Coach, http://www.susandunn.cc . Coaching, business programs, Internet courses, teleclasses and ebooks for personal and professional development. Mailto:sdunn@susandunn.cc for FREE ezine.

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Sunday, November 06, 2005

When Weather Diverts You....

This article brought to you courtesy of http://www.flightschoolworld.com

It's part of flying, and there's nothing you can do about it. . . perhaps.

You're trying to get to your destination, or maybe you're trying to get home. You look at the weather and no matter how you plot out your time, direction of flight, and other options, you're staying put!

Blessing or curse?

I guess it depends what you'd like to make of it.

Flying home from OshKosh I met up with a couple stranded at the Mason County Airport (LDM) in Ludington,Michigan. If I were to be stranded anywhere, Ludington would be my dream! Beautiful sandy beaches on Lake Michigan have made this town one of the busiest resort towns in Michigan.

Again, blessing or curse?

This couple called over 40 hotels, motels and bed and breakfasts only to find all of them sold out! Once again they reviewed their options. Fly to Ann Arbor for a better position in the morning, sleep in the plane, make use of the comfortable lounge furniture in the terminal lobby?

The adventure continued. . .

A call from a local Bed and Breakfast revealed that there was one room they hadn't discovered. They'd have to share a bathroom, and there was no air conditioning, but there was a "bed" and a "breakfast!"

It turns out that this couple had also spent the night in Ludington on the way over to OshKosh when weather prevented them from flying across the lake.

Of course, I haven't heard the ending to this story yet, but If I wrote my own ending it would go something like this:

"After checking into the Bed and Breakfast, we walked down to the beach where we watched the boats and fishermen enjoy the evening as if nothing else in the world mattered. We realized we were getting hungry after the events of the day and found a cozy little seafood restaurant with a stunning view of the lake.

Before it was too late, I made a phone call to work letting them know I wouldn't be back on Monday or maybe even Tuesday! I was told to take my time and advised not push it if weather was an issue. How good can this get?

The room was just fine, and the breeze blowing through the open window was far more comfortable than a noisy room air conditioner.

After some interesting conversation and a tasty breakfast, we headed back home and didn't worry too much about weather.

If we had to stop again we'd have one more adventure to add to our journal and maybe another day or two off work!

Link: http://www.airplanenoise.com/great_trips.htm


About the Author

Pat Redmond, Brighton, Mi usa
Pat Redmond, helps business owners who are tired of long lines and baggage claims, fly their way to freedom! Enjoy dinner with your family tonight! To learn more about the General Aviation Business, sign up for more FREE tips like these, visit her site at http://www.airplanenoise.com

Saturday, November 05, 2005

Professional Tips Against Jet Lag

This article brought to you courtesy of http://www.flightschoolworld.com

First of all please notice that some explanations in my article are from a �viewpoint� of European Times. You�ll know what I mean when you read my article.

AND I am German and have some misspelled words, grammar and phrases. I�m still developing my skills, but just don�t look at this, look at the content itself, and you�ll be happy. ;-)

So go ahead now, I just want you to recognize it. ;-)

The biological clock of the body needs a while after a journey into another time belt, in order to adjust itself to the new rhythm. Physical and mental symptoms can occur here such as headache, listlessness or nausea, but none jet lag must be helplessly delivered.

Daylight helps itself the cells, automatically to program on "Day". When you fly in direction to the east, for example to Thailand, it might be harder for you - you lose several hours. In order to prepare some days in advance for the new sleep rhythm, you should spend some time in the daylight in the early evening. During the flight it is advisable to sleep in advance. Then the adjustment goes faster.

When you travel toward the west, approximately to the USA, you�ll have it easier. Nevertheless you should try to plan its arrival around noon time to get the brightest light of the day. Important appointments or activities at the arrival place you should plan at the time of day, at which you are most awake: After a flight in direction to the east in the evening, after a flight in direction to the west in the morning.

Sleep on board

Many humans have problems to fall asleep on the tiny seat in the airplane. Therefore in such a way some seizes to sleep pills or tranquilizers. This unnatural interference into the bio rhythm of the body affects negatively to your adjustment at recent time conditions.

It is healthier to create yourself in the airplane as good sleep conditions as possible: Take yourself an inflatable neck cushion and an eye mask in the airplane. Some airlines distribute themselves these implements on board, but you shouldn�t rely on it however.

Since feet often swell on a flight, it is advisable to take your shoes off and to carry yourself on a warm cosy pair of socks. Even if you feel yourself it�s not cold, you should cover yourselves before falling asleep with a light cover (you�ll get one by all long distance flights), so that you do not wake up freezing and protect yourself from a cold!
I for myself know what I�m talking about. I have seen many people who underestimated this point and had a cold at their additional days after their flight.

Never drink alcohol as your �falling-asleep-assistance�

Tiny alcohol bottles on board often used as a falling asleep assistance during the flight. In the airplane these affect however - exactly the same as tranquilizers - three times as strongly as down on the earth! If you are suffering from fear of flight you should avoid alcohol here, since psychological symptoms can occur such as aggression or depression (however, this is an extensive subject. I will post an article about this in the future. For now I focus on �jet lag�).

In addition alcohol supports the drainage of the body, which particularly begins fast on long distance flights. As consequence headache and listlessness appear. The air within an airplane is often drier than in the desert! While the air humidity of the Sahara amounts to about 20 per cent, it occurs at long distance flights that it falls below the ten-per cent border. Therefore you should drink much water during, before and after the flight.

Professionals take beverages themselves

In many cases the water on board isn�t particularly good-tasting and is served in containers by the size of an egg cup. You won�t to constantly trouble a flight attendant with your desires. Therefore take yourself also a large bottle of your preferential mineral water on board.

Last but not least: my most important advice

To the complete habituation time of your body the following rule of thumb applies:
One day per hour time lag. With a difference of six hours that would be six days, until the biological clock of the body ticks in conformity with the time belt. When you then precautionary go to bed one our earlier/later per day, your body get used to the new daytime.

Enjoy your trip to Germany!

Much admiration



P.S. I'm hot to get to know your written travel experiences! Send them to me and, maybe, I'll post them on my website!

About the Author

Marcus Hochstadt travels extensively to countries, continents and Germany itself as a sales manager and entrepreneur since more than 14 years. He knows in almost each German city the points of REAL interest. Watch out for his free monthly special report with more valuable insider tips at www.smart-travel-germany.com/smart-travelogy-germ.html.

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Friday, November 04, 2005

Emery Express And Consolidated Freight; An End Of An Era

Ths article brought to you courtesy of http://www.flightschoolworld.com

What many may not realize is that Emery Express was also a CF Company. You see John C. Emery, Sr. founded Emery Air Freight in 1946, when his company became the first air freight forwarder to apply for a common carrier license from the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). While Emery envisioned his company working in partnership with scheduled airlines, the airlines considered freight forwarders as competitors and fought his license application until 1948, at which time the CAB granted Emery a license as a common air freight carrier. His plan worked. During that time, the company operated out of a New York office with a fleet of vehicles that consisted of two Ford station wagons. Since those beginnings a half-century ago, Emery has grown into a $2.9-billion global air, ocean, customs brokerage and logistics services company.

By 1956, Emery Air Freight had expanded overseas with its first international office in London and had inaugurated transatlantic service. The company moved to the cutting edge of technology in 1969 with a computerized tracking and tracing system called EMCON, short for Emery Control. John Emery died that same year and his son, John Emery, Jr., assumed leadership of the company. The fuel crisis of the early 1970's prompted the company to lease its own aircraft and launch the "Emery Air Force" in 1976. Emery now offered closed-loop control of shipments from pickup to delivery, with Emery trucks and aircraft overseeing every step of the transportation process. In a bid for expansion into the small package and letter market, the company acquired Purolator Courier in 1987. The acquisition proved disastrous and Emery struggled until Consolidated Freightways, Inc. purchased the company and merged it with CF Airfreight, CFI Inc.'s existing air cargo company. That was when CF became the parent of Emery. Over the next two years, from 1989 to 1991, the new Emery, now known as Emery Forwarding, struggled financially as did the original company in its last several years of existence. In response, CFI Inc. implemented management restructuring and marketing plans that helped launch Emery to its position as a market share leader in the heavyweight, business-to-business airfreight industry. By early 1992, the new marketing and operations plan had started to turn the company around. Customer confidence increased, as evidenced by the award of several major "primary carrier" contracts from such companies as General Motors. In September of that year, Emery reported its first monthly profit since its acquisition by CFI Inc. Emery completed its financial turnaround in 1993, earning its first annual profit for Emery under any management since 1986. That same year, the company won a 10-year, $1-billion operations contract from the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) to operate its Express Mail air transportation system. They lost that contract due to non-performance and then Fed Ex picked up that volume. However once back on good financial footing, Emery tried to position itself into a "one-stop" transportation and logistics provider. Thus it was happy to have the support of CF.

The Company introduced its logistics subsidiary in 1992 and strengthened its ocean services and customs brokerage divisions, both of which Emery had owned since 1976. The company also committed more than $75 million for information technology upgrades to meet customer needs beyond the year 2000. Emery's parent company, Consolidated Freightways, Inc., restructured itself toward the end of 1996 with the spin-off of its national long-haul motor carrier unit. The parent company was renamed CNF Inc. and consisted of Emery, Con-Way Transportation Services and Menlo Logistics. Con Way was the Non-Union part of CF.

In December 2001, Emery was combined with the former Menlo Logistics and Vector SCM. As part of the Menlo Worldwide group of integrated service providers, Emery Forwarding now looks forward to working with our customers in new directions to design an even greater range of supply chain solutions than ever before. Menlo Worldwide is the acknowledged industry leader in global 3PL solutions, and launched the first successful 4PL program. I know this sounds very official however realize that this is the project of the Bell Labs Think Tank and is partly improvised from the theory of Net-Centric Warfare with a slice of Fred smiths, Hub System thoughts, implementing every type of known transportation to deliver the packages and shipments. Emery Forwarding, part of the Menlo Worldwide group of integrated business solution providers, offers international air and ocean forwarding, North American overnight, expedited, second-day and deferred air freight, customs brokerage and project management services. Menlo Worldwide, based in Redwood City, Calif., is a $2.9 billion company with 12,000 employees and global supply chain services in more than 200 countries. Menlo Worldwide was formed in December 2001.

Few realize the connection between Emery and Consolidated Freight, but those who do realize that more was lost when CF filed bankruptcy as there were synergies in the entire logistic chain spanning nearly 7 and a half decades.

By Lance Winslow

Wednesday, November 02, 2005

Aircraft Purchase Agreements

This article brought to you courtesy of http://www.flightschoolworld.com

2004 Reigel & Associates, Ltd./Aero Legal Services. All rights reserved.

Why Use An Aircraft Purchase Agreement?

It always surprises me when a potential aircraft buyer is unsure of whether he or she should use a purchase agreement when buying an aircraft. Most of these individuals have purchased homes and no doubt used a purchase agreement in such transactions. Yet, many of these same individuals would spend the same amount of money to purchase an aircraft, and often times a great deal more money, without the protection of a written aircraft purchase agreement.

Aircraft purchase agreements should be used in almost every aircraft sale transaction. First, the law in most states requires that a contract for an amount greater than $500.00 be in writing in order for it to be enforceable. This is called the statute of frauds. Although exceptions to this legal doctrine exist, complying with the law is usually safer than hoping you will be able to take advantage of an exception.

Further, using an aircraft purchase agreement can also help avoid confusion and misunderstandings. If the agreement clearly explains how the transaction will happen, when it will happen and what is included in the deal, the greater the likelihood that the buyer and seller will each know the other party�s expectations and the less chance for surprises or misunderstandings.

What Terms Should Be Included?

The number and complexity of the terms that should be included in an aircraft purchase agreement will often times be dictated by the type and value of the aircraft being purchased/sold. Although by no means inclusive, the following terms provide a good place to start.

Identify the Parties. The agreement should identify who is selling the aircraft and who is buying the aircraft. Although this sounds simple to do, it isn�t always clear who is the seller and who is the buyer. It is very common for aircraft to be registered in the name of a corporation or limited liability company. In that case, the individual with whom you are negotiating is not the owner of the aircraft and should not be listed as the seller. The registered owner of the aircraft should be identified as the seller.

The buyer on the other hand, can be an individual or a corporation or limited liability company. If an individual is the buyer, that person will be listed and upon registration will be the record owner of the aircraft. To fully take advantage of release and indemnity language discussed in greater detail below, the seller may also want to consider having an individual buyer�s spouse execute the purchase agreement.

If a corporation or limited liability company will be registering the aircraft, the purchase agreement should identify that entity as the buyer. Alternatively, an individual can sign an agreement as the buyer and, as long as the agreement allows the buyer to assign his or her rights under the agreement, that individual may still assign the agreement to a corporation or limited liability company prior to closing. The corporation or limited liability company then becomes the buyer and can close on the transaction without the individual ever entering the chain of title. From a liability perspective, this can be important.

Identify the Aircraft. The aircraft purchase agreement should identify the aircraft with as much detail as possible. At a minimum, it should include the make, model, N-number and serial number for the aircraft. Ideally, a list of all avionics, logbooks, handbooks, additional equipment and any accessories should be included. Also, if the seller intends to retain certain items, those items should be specifically identified and excluded from the transaction. By taking the time to detail exactly what is and isn�t being sold, you will prevent misunderstandings at delivery.

Purchase/Sale Price. The agreement should specify how much is being paid for the aircraft. If the buyer will be giving the seller a deposit or earnest money, that fact should be included. Also, what happens to the deposit when it is given to the seller? Will the money be placed in escrow or simply held by the seller? If an escrow agent is not involved, the buyer will need to obtain some assurance that his or her deposit will not simply disappear into the seller�s pocket making the buyer�s recovery from the seller difficult or impossible if the transaction does not close. The agreement should also state under what conditions the seller must refund the deposit to the buyer.

The buyer�s method of payment should also be stated. Is it a cash transaction or will financing be involved? If financing is involved, the buyer may want to include language that makes the transaction contingent upon the buyer obtaining financing on terms acceptable to the buyer. That way, if the buyer isn�t able to obtain satisfactory financing, the buyer will not be forced to complete the purchase on financially unacceptable terms.

Will other consideration be given to the seller, such as a trade? If so, to the extent that it is possible, the item(s) to be traded to the seller should be identified with the same amount of detail used to describe the aircraft being purchased. This will help avoid later confusion.

Documents. The agreement should include a statement about which documents the seller will sign and deliver to the buyer at closing. Usually this includes a Bill of Sale (FAA Form 8050-2) and a signed current Registration Form (FAA Form 8050-3).

Pre-purchase inspection. In most transactions, the buyer will want to have a pre-purchase inspection performed on the aircraft. The purchase agreement can specify who will perform the inspection, what qualifications that individual must possess and where the inspection will take place. Also, the buyer should make the agreement contingent upon the buyer�s satisfaction with results of the inspection. Although the buyer is usually responsible for the expenses associated with a pre-purchase inspection, the agreement should address which party is responsible for what expenses related to the inspection.

Warranties. It is possible to include a variety of warranties in the purchase agreement representing certain conditions of the aircraft (e.g. warranties of airworthiness, merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose etc.). However, due to space limitations most of these warranties will not be discussed here.

From a buyer�s perspective, the warranty of title is probably most important. This warranty ensures that the buyer receives title to the aircraft free and clear of any liens or mortgages. Although the buyer will still want to obtain a title search of the FAA Registry�s records for the airplane, having the warranty of title included in the purchase agreement will help to minimize the risk of any unrecorded liens or interests in the aircraft.

Most sellers will want to include a disclaimer in the purchase agreement stating that the buyer is purchasing the aircraft "As-is". This language is intended to limit the seller�s responsibility for any defects or unknown conditions in the aircraft. If the buyer is having a thorough pre-purchase inspection performed by a qualified mechanic familiar with the specific aircraft, inclusion of this disclaimer in the purchase agreement is probably not a great concern for the buyer.

Choice of Law/Venue. If the transaction involves a buyer and seller from different states, it may be prudent to include language in the purchase agreement that governs what law applies to the transaction and where any disputes would have to be resolved.

Waiver and Release of Liability. The seller will want waiver and release of liability language in the purchase agreement to limit potential liability for injury or damage sustained by the buyer arising out of the buyer�s use of the aircraft. The language should be in bold, all caps letters to make sure it is obvious and not buried in the fine print of the purchase agreement.

Waiver and release of liability language will not release a seller from responsibility for the seller�s intentional acts or gross negligence. Nor will it prevent possible claims from third-parties who are injured or damaged by buyer�s use of the aircraft or from the buyer�s minor children. However, it will prevent the buyer, and the buyer�s spouse if the spouse has signed the purchase agreement, from suing the seller if a defect in the aircraft causes an accident that results in injury or damages.

What Remedy Does An Aircraft Purchase Agreement Give You?

First, an aircraft purchase agreement is not a 100% guarantee that a buyer or seller will not be sued. In this litigious world, I don�t know that such a guarantee is possible. Further, the purchase agreement alone does not make anyone do anything. If a buyer or seller does not want to comply with his or her obligations, the purchase agreement will not change that. However, the purchase agreement will give you the ability to go to court and have a judge make the non-performing or �breaching� party comply with his or her obligations.

If the purchase agreement is drafted clearly and with sufficient detail, it may be possible to have the court specifically enforce the agreement (e.g. make the breaching party do what the purchase agreement says he or she is supposed to do). An example would be where a buyer refused to complete a transaction even though the seller and the aircraft complied with all of the terms of the purchase agreement. In this case, a court could force the buyer to purchase the aircraft.

Alternatively, the court may award money damages for losses incurred by the non-breaching party. An example of this is when a seller refuses to return a deposit even though the buyer has complied with all of the terms of the purchase agreement and has a right to return of the money. In this situation, a court could enter a judgment against the seller in the amount of the unreturned security deposit.


An aircraft purchase agreement is a valuable tool to ensure that each party to an aircraft purchase transaction receives what is expected. It prevents confusion and misunderstanding and provides security that a party will have recourse if the other party to the transaction fails to perform as required. With minimal up-front time and expense, both buyers and sellers can protect their interests and maximize the likelihood of an uneventful closing and purchase.

About the Author

Greg is an aviation attorney, author and holds a commercial pilot certificate with instrument rating. His practice concentrates on aviation litigation, including insurance matters and creditor�s rights, FAA certificate actions and aviation related transactional matters. He can be reached via e-mail at greigel@aerolegalservices.com or check out his website at www.aerolegalservices.com.

Tuesday, November 01, 2005

CAn One Plane "Do It All"

This article brought to you courtesy of http://www.flightschoolworld.com

Probably not, however you can own a plane that will accomplish most of what you'd like it to do. First you must ask yourself the following questions:

1. How will I be using this airplane?


Flying myself from point "A" to point "B"
Flying myself and a couple of employees
Flying customers


Flying to a 2nd home, either up north or in the south
Vacationing with my airplane
Visiting family, friends or children
I'm a Sunday afternoon flyer
Aerobatic flying
Flying a floatplane around the lakes

2. Where will I be flying my airplane?

Pretty much within the state
Regional travel, within a couple of states
Flying more than a tank of fuel away regularly

3. How many passengers will I normally have?

4. What is my flying experience level?

5. How much can I comfortably afford each month?

The "ideal" airplane will do it all for you, but realistically, if you can purchase a plane that will accomplish 90% of your missions, you're doing great! On that rare occasion that you want to take that extra person, or land on water, or do a couple of barrel rolls. . . RENT a plane for the afternoon!

If you plan to fly your plane for more than the time it takes to find a good airport restaurant, comfort and ease of flying will become important considerations. Look for seats that adjust in several directions and with back support. Head room and shoulder room won't seem to be an issue on a "demo" flight, but try to anticipate your needs when you've been in a seat for 4-5 hours. Can you stretch a bit or are you cramped and irritable?

Does the airplane's range meet your needs? A fuel stop will cost you an hour so the few knots you gained with the faster plane may not get you to your destination first if you had to make a stop.

What about the airplane's flying demands. Can you relax a bit or does the plane require your absolute attention. Is the plane forgiving when you're fatigued? Do you have sufficient avionics to provide the information you need in the cockpit? Demanding airplanes are a thrill and a challenge to fly, but when your typical trip is several hours long, the challenge gets old. . . FAST!

Your choice of airplane is a critical one and too often we buy with our emotions and then later regret our decisions. Take the time to envision yourself and your family/business associates in the airplane, and making the usual trip. Are you relaxed? Is everyone comfortable? If the answer is not YES, your business/family flights will probably be short-lived.

Once you've determined your needs, it's time to look at your finances. Yes, you read that correctly! Determine the right airplane FIRST and then decide how you're going to pay for it. That comment doesn't sound like one that would come from the daughter of a conservative accountant. . .

However, if you purchase the wrong airplane for the right money, you're sure to:

1. Not fully utilize your airplane
2. Spend too much money trying to make it what you wanted in the first place
3. Get hurt!

(Dad would agree with that!)

Instead, choose the right airplane and learn about different options available to help you pay for it. You can learn about some of these options by downloading the teleclass:

"Secrets of the Aircraft Finance Companies"

at: http://www.airplanenoise.com eleclass_schedule.htm

Choosing the right airplane is SUCH an important decision! Do your homework and buy a plane that will be easily integrated into your lifestyle: business AND personal .

You can compare the features of several aircraft by downloading the Spec sheets at:


Link: http://www.airplanenoise.com/answers_to_why.htm

About the Author

Pat Redmond helps business owners who are tired of long lines and baggage claims, fly their way to freedom! Enjoy dinner with your family tonight! To learn more about the General Aviation Business, sign up for FREE aircraft purchase tips and tools, visit her site at http://www.airplanenoise.com

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